Bioakkumulation wikipedia

Finding the causeedit

Since the change of route of wastewater output in 1958, pollution had spread up and down the Shiranui Sea, damaging fisheries there, too. Emboldened by the success of the small Minamata cooperative, the Kumamoto Prefectural Alliance of Fishing Cooperatives also decided to seek compensation from Chisso. On 17 October, 1,500 fishermen from the alliance descended on the factory to demand negotiations. When this produced no results, the alliance members took their campaign to Tokyo, securing an official visit to Minamata by members of the Japanese Diet. During the visit on 2 November, alliance members forced their way into the factory and rioted, causing many injuries and ¥10 million ($100,000) worth of damage. The violence was covered widely in the media, bringing the nation's attention to the Minamata issue for the first time since the outbreak began. Another mediation committee was set up, and an agreement was hammered out and signed on 17 December. Some ¥25 million of "sympathy money" was paid to the alliance and a ¥65 million fishing recovery fund was established. Children exposed to mercury are particularly susceptible to poisoning since the ratio of food, water, and air intake versus individual body weight is much higher than that of adults.[42] Additionally, children undergo fast growth which causes them to be more susceptible to damaging exposure to methylmercury, as well as the long term consequences of such exposure during childhood development.[42] Young age plays an important role in terms of damage caused by mercury, and much literature on mercury focuses on pregnant women and specific precautions designed to prevent youth mercury exposure. Prenatal methylmercury exposure does cause behavioral problems in infants and worsened cognitive test performance. Additionally, Hughner estimates that 250,000 women may be exposing their unborn babies to levels of methyl mercury above recommended federal levels.[17]

Bioconcentration - Wikipedia

Elemental mercury often comes from coal power plants, and oxidized mercury often comes from incinerators. Oil-fired power plants also contribute mercury to the environment.[2] The energy industry therefore is a key player in the introduction of mercury into the environment. When addressing the issue of reducing seafood mercury bioaccumulation on a global scale, it is important to pinpoint major energy producers and consumers whose exchange of energy may be the root of the problem. Bioaccumulation of Heavy MetalsSome of the substances that make up Earth's crust are elements, substances that cannot be naturally broken down into simpler substances. A few of these elements are poisonous even if present in a low concentration. These are known as heavy metals. Examples of heavy metals include mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, thallium, and lead Mongolia is a country between China and Russia, in Asia.. Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia and Central Asia.It borders Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south, east and west. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.. Until recently, most of the people there were Buddhists.Many of them are nomads (people who always move from place to. Konkret ist der Bioakkumulationsfaktor das Verhältnis zwischen der Konzentration im Körper und einem Bezugsmedium, etwa dem umgebenden Boden, dem umgebenden Wasser oder der aufgenommenen Nahrung. Wird ein konkreter Bioakkumulationsfaktor angegeben, so muss auch stets die physikalische Bezugsgröße in den beiden verglichenen Kompartimenten mit angegeben werden, denn die Konzentrationen sollten sich für die beiden verglichenen Kompartimente möglichst auf die gleiche Messgröße beziehen, etwa auf Frischmasse, Trockenmasse oder auf Volumina. Ein volumenbezogener Bioakkumulationsfaktor von 1000 gegenüber Wasser heißt dann etwa, dass die Konzentration im Organismus tausendmal größer ist als im umgebenden Wasser, wenn beide Vergleichswerte auf die jeweiligen Volumina bezogen sind. Bioakkumulationsfaktoren können auch für einzelne Organe im Vergleich zu einem Referenzkompartiment angegeben werden. So weisen fettreiche Organe (etwa Leber) häufig höhere Konzentrationen und damit höhere Bioakkumulationswerte an lipophilen Umweltschadstoffen auf als fettarme Organe (etwa Muskeln). Schwermetalle reichern sich oft an bestimmten Bindungsstellen im Körper an, etwa Blei (als Pb2+) durch Verdrängung von Calcium (als Ca2+) im Knochen. One of thousands of articles selected and checked for the Wikipedia for Schools by SOS Children's Villages UK. Americium. Related subjects: Chemical elements. About this schools Wikipedia selection. SOS Children have produced a selection of wikipedia articles for schools since 2005

Identification of mercuryedit

Bioakkumulation : German - English translations and synonyms (BEOLINGUS Online dictionary, TU Chemnitz The realization of the adverse effects from environmental pollution were made public from several disasters that occurred globally. In 1965, it was recognized that extensive mercury pollution by the Chisso chemical factory in Minamata, Japan due to improper handling of industrial wastes resulted in significant effects to the humans and organisms exposed.[27] Mercury was released into the environment as methyl mercury (bioavailable state) into industrial wastewater and was then bioaccumulated by shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea.[27] When the contaminated seafood was consumed by the local populace it caused a neurological syndrome, coined Minamata disease.[27] Symptoms include general muscle weakness, hearing damage, reduced field of vision, and ataxia.[27] The Minamata disaster contributed to the global realization of the potential dangers from environmental pollution and to the characterization of PBTs. agrotypes plural of agrotype 2015 June 4, Xue-Mei Wang et al., Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus, in Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry ‎ [1] , volume 2015, DOI : 10.1155/2015/165412 Previous studies have shown that DDT and other similar chemicals directly elicited a response and effect from excitable membranes.[18] DDT causes membranes such as sense organs and nerves endings to activate repetitively by slowing down the ability for the sodium channel to close and stop releasing sodium ions. The sodium ions are what polarize the opposing synapse after it has depolarized from firing.[19] This inhibition of closing the sodium ion channel can lead to a variety of problems including a dysfunctional nervous system, decreased motor abilities/function/control, reproductive impairment (egg-shell thinning in birds), and development deficiencies. Presently, DDT has been labeled as a possible human carcinogen based on animal liver tumor studies.[20] DDT toxicity on humans have been associated with dizziness, tremors, irritability, and convulsions. Chronic toxicity has led to long term neurological and cognitive issues.[21]

During the investigation by researchers at Kumamoto University, the causal substance had been identified as a heavy metal and it was widely presumed that the Chisso plant was the source of the contamination. Chisso was coming under closer scrutiny and to deflect criticism, the wastewater output route was changed. Chisso knew of the environmental damage caused by its wastewater and was well aware that it was the prime suspect in the Minamata disease investigation. Despite this, from September 1958, instead of discharging its waste into Hyakken Harbour (the focus of investigation and source of original contamination), it discharged wastewater directly into Minamata River. The immediate effect was the death of fish at the mouth of the river, and from that point on, new Minamata disease victims began to appear in other fishing villages up and down the coast of the Shiranui Sea, as the pollution spread over an even greater area.[22] Minamata disease (Japanese: 水俣病, Hepburn: Minamata-byō), sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease (チッソ水俣病, Chisso-Minamata-byō), is a neurological disease caused by severe mercury poisoning.Signs and symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, loss of peripheral vision, and damage to hearing and speech Mercury is known to bioaccumulate in humans, so bioaccumulation in seafood carries over into human populations, where it can result in mercury poisoning. Mercury is dangerous to both natural ecosystems and humans because it is a metal known to be highly toxic, especially due to its ability to damage the central nervous system.[2] In human-controlled ecosystems of fish, usually done for market production of wanted seafood species, mercury clearly rises through the food chain via fish consuming small plankton, as well as through non-food sources such as underwater sediment.[3] The conclusion contained many factual errors: eating fish and shellfish from other areas of the Shiranui Sea, not just Minamata Bay, could cause the disease; eating small amounts, as well as large amounts of contaminated fish over a long time also produced symptoms; the outbreak had not, in fact, ended in 1960 nor had mercury-removing wastewater facilities been installed in January 1960. Nevertheless, the government announcement brought a feeling of relief to a great many victims and their families. Many felt vindicated in their long struggle to force Chisso to accept responsibility for causing the disease and expressed thanks that their plight had been recognised by their social superiors. The struggle now focused on to what extent the victims should be compensated.[31] The litigation group, representing 41 certified patients (17 already deceased) in 28 families, submitted their suit against Chisso in the Kumamoto District Court on 14 June 1969. The leader of the group, Eizō Watanabe (a former leader of the Mutual Aid Society), declared, "Today, and from this day forth, we are fighting against the power of the state." Those who decided to sue the company came under fierce pressure to drop their lawsuits. One woman was visited personally by a Chisso executive and harassed by her neighbours. She was ignored, her family's fishing boat used without permission, their fishing nets were cut, and human faeces were thrown at her in the street.[33]

Rapex-Meldung: Krebserregendes Chrysen in Wärmflaschen von

Certain countries have cultural differences that lead to more fish consumption and therefore more possible exposure to seafood methylmercury. In Ghana, the local population traditionally consumes large quantities of fish, leading to potentially dangerous amounts of mercury in the bloodstream.[27] In the Amazonian Basin, during the rainy season, herbivorous fish dominate the diet of 72.2% of the women selected from a particular Amazonian village. Analysis also shows increase of mercury content in the hair of humans who eat fish on a daily basis in the Amazon.[44] These article cover topics related to the chemistry of the environment: Pages in category Environmental chemistry The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total

Bioaccumulation is when the concentration of chemicals increases within an organism or species. This can occur when toxic substances are ingested. These toxic substances are very difficult for organisms to excrete, therefore, accumulate in their tissues. One common pollutant that bioaccumulates is mercury, which specifically accumulates in fish.Organic compounds and metals can both bioaccumulate Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals - Science topic Explore the latest questions and answers in Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals, and find Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals experts. Questions (90 Just wanted to announce the creation of a new Toxicology Task Force under WikiProject Medicine. Feel free to come and sign up. Thanks -- Jrtayloriv (talk) 04:06, 3 February 2010 (UTC) Bioaccumulation is a process in which toxic substances (such as pesticides) accumulate in living organisms.This poses a threat to health, life, and the environment.. Similar terms are bioconcentration, biological concentration, or biological magnification

The initial contact from DDT is on vegetation and soil. From here, the DDT can travel many routes, for instance, when plants and vegetation are exposed to the chemical to protect from insects, the plants may absorb it. Then these plants may either be consumed by humans or other animals. These consumers ingest the chemical and begin metabolizing the toxicant, accumulating more through ingestion, and posing health risks to the organism, their offspring, and any predators. Alternatively the ingestion of the contaminated plant by insects may lead to tolerance by the organism. Another route is the chemical travelling through the soil and ending up in ground water and in human water supply.[15] Or in the case that the soil is near a moving water system, the chemical could end up in large freshwater systems or the ocean where fish are at high risk from the toxicological effects of DDT.[16] Lastly, the most common transport route is the evaporation of DDT into the atmosphere followed by condensation and eventually precipitation where it is released into environments anywhere on earth.[17] Due to the long-range transport of DDT, the presence of this harmful toxicant will continue as long as it is still used anywhere and until the current contamination eventually degrades. Even after its complete discontinued use, it will still remain in the environment for many more years after because of DDT’s persistent attributes.[16] In context|biology|lang=en terms the difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification is that bioaccumulation is (biology) the process by which substances accumulate in the tissues of living organisms; used especially of toxic substances that accumulate via a food chain while biomagnification is (biology) the process, in an ecosystem, in which a higher concentration of a substance in an. Re-emission, the largest emitter, occurs in a variety of ways. It is possible for mercury that has been deposited in soil to be re-emitted into the mercury cycle via floods. A second example of re-emission is a forest fire; mercury that has been absorbed into plant life is re-released into the atmosphere. While it is difficult to estimate the exact extent of mercury re-emission, it is an important field of study. Knowing how easily and how often previously emitted mercury can be released helps us learn how long it will take for a reduction in anthropogenic sources to be reflected in the environment. Mercury that has been released can find its way into the oceans. A 2008 model estimated the total amount of deposition into the oceans that year to be 3,700 metric tons. It is estimated that rivers carry as much as 2,420 metric tons.[24] Much of the mercury deposited in the oceans is re-emitted, however; as much as 300 metric tons is converted into methyl mercury. While only 13% of this finds its way into the food chain, that is still 40 metric tons a year.[24] The complexities associated with mercury transport and environmental fate are described by USEPA in their 1997 Mercury Study Report to Congress.[50] Because methyl mercury and high levels of elemental mercury can be particularly toxic to a fetus or young children, organizations such as the U.S. EPA and FDA recommend that women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant within the next one or two years, as well as young children, avoid eating more than 6 ounces (170g, one average meal) of fish per week.[51]

Biomagnification - Wikipedia

  1. English to Hindi & English Online Dictionary. Search all Hindi words & phrases | Online Shabdkosh | अंग्रेजी - हिन्दी ऑनलाइन शब्दकोश । Bioaccumulation - जैव संचय
  2. bioaccumulation: Wordnik [home, info] bioaccumulation: Wiktionary [home, info] bioaccumulation: Webster's New World College Dictionary, 4th Ed. [home, info] bioaccumulation: Dictionary.com [home, info] Bioaccumulation: Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia [home, info] bioaccumulation: Dictionary/thesaurus [home, info] Business (1 matching dictionary
  3. Bioakkumulation ist die Anreicherung einer Substanz in einem Organismus durch Aufnahme aus dem umgebenden Medium oder über die Nahrung (siehe Nahrungskette). Der Begriff Bioakkumulation wird sowohl für den Vorgang des Akkumulierens verwendet als auch für die Kennzeichnung des erreichten Momentan- oder Gleichgewichtszustandes.
  4. In the 1950s, inhabitants of the seaside town of Minamata, on Kyushu island in Japan, noticed strange behavior in animals. Cats would exhibit nervous tremors, and dance and scream. Within a few years this was observed in other animals; birds would drop out of the sky. Symptoms were also observed in fish, an important component of the diet, especially for the poor. When human symptoms started to be noticed around 1956 an investigation began. Fishing was officially banned in 1957. It was found that the Chisso Corporation, a petrochemical company and maker of plastics such as vinyl chloride, had been discharging heavy metal waste into the sea for decades. They used mercury compounds as catalysts in their syntheses. It is believed that about 5,000 people were killed and perhaps 50,000 have been to some extent poisoned by mercury. Mercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan, is now known as Minamata disease.

Compensation of fishermen and patients, 1959edit

Bioakkumulation er den stigende koncentration af et stof i en organisme gennem dens levetid. Begrebet anvendes mest om ophobning af giftstoffer i fisk. Stub. Denne artikel om biologi er kun påbegyndt. Hvis du ved mere om emnet, kan du hjælpe Wikipedia ved a biomagnification (bī′ō-măg′nə-fĭ-kā′shən) n. The increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain. biomagnification The result of bioaccumulation and biotransfer by which tissue concentrations of chemicals in organisms at one trophic level exceed.

Minamata disease - Wikipedia

Structure and chemistry Methylmercury is a shorthand for the hypothetical methylmercury cation, sometimes written methylmercury(1+) cation or methylmercury(II) cation.This functional group is composed of a methyl group bonded to a mercury.Its chemical formula is C H 3 Hg + (sometimes written as MeHg +).Methylmercury exists as a substituent in many complexes of the type [MeHgL] + (L. PBTs may have a high environmental mobility relative to other contaminants mainly due to their resistance to degradation (persistence). This allows PBTs to travel far and wide in both the atmosphere and in aqueous environments. The low degradation rates of PBTs allow these chemicals to be exposed to both biotic and abiotic factors while maintaining a relatively stable concentration. Another factor that makes PBTs especially dangerous are the degradation products which are often relatively as toxic as the parent compound. These factors have resulted in global contamination most notable in remote areas such as the arctic and high elevation areas which are far from any source of PBTs.[3]

The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to. Common Loons (Gavia immer) also accumulate high levels of mercury due to eating fish (biomagnification) and having long lives (bioaccumulation). Evers et al. 2008 found a 41% decrease in fledged loon young in parents with >3 micrograms of mercury per gram of tissue compared to those with <1 microgram

Bio-accumulation synonyms, Bio-accumulation pronunciation, Bio-accumulation translation, English dictionary definition of Bio-accumulation. n. The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism: the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish... The events in Niigata catalysed a change in response to the original Minamata incident. The scientific research carried out in Niigata forced a re-examination of that done in Minamata and the decision of Niigata patients to sue the polluting company allowed the same response to be considered in Minamata. Masazumi Harada has said that, "It may sound strange, but if this second Minamata disease had not broken out, the medical and social progress achieved by now in Kumamoto... would have been impossible."[29] Biološko kopičenje ali bioakumulácija je splošen izraz za kopičenje določenih strupenih snovi v organizmu oziroma v delu organizma. Proces zajema biološko ločevanje snovi, ki preidejo v organizem preko prehranjevanja, vdihovanja, kožnega stika in drugih poti. Le-to povzroči nastanek večje koncentracije snovi v primerjavi z okoljem, kjer organizem prebiva

Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances - Wikipedia

The United States is a leader in mercury regulation. A key piece of mercury legislation in the United States is the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS).[10] This policy was finalized by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on December 16, 2011. This is a federal policy which directly influences mercury in fish, and is the first of its kind in the United States. The facilities targeted by this new policy are the chief sources of mercury in the air. The airborne mercury is dissolved in the oceans, where microorganisms convert waterborne mercury into methyl mercury; mercury thus finds its way into the food chain and into fish. MATS is legislated towards the aim of preventing about 90% of the emissions from power plants from reaching the air. In total the expected health benefits are estimated at $37 billion–$90 billion by 2016.[citation needed] In comparison, the expected economic cost is $9.6 billion annually.[citation needed] Another integral piece of legislation controlling the emission of mercury to the air is the Clean Air Act. Under this act, mercury is classified as a hazardous air pollutant, allowing the EPA to regulate emissions by establishing performance standards.[11] Bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulationis a general term for the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides (DDT is an example), methylmercury, or other organic chemicals in an organism or part of an organism.The accumulation process involves the biological sequestering of substances that enter the organism through respiration, food intake, epidermal (skin) contact with the substance, and/or. A study that was led by scientists from Harvard University and U.S. Geological Survey has determined that in the next several decades there will be a 50 percent increase in mercury levels.[citation needed] The study also shows that the increases are connected through industrial emissions and are not natural as previously thought.[citation needed]However, by decreasing emissions from industrial plants, the possibility of decreasing the high level of mercury remains plausible.[29] Several nations are currently implementing systems that will detect and therefore later be able to control the output of mercury into the atmosphere. Air pollution control devices (APCDs) have been implemented in South Korea as the government is starting to take inventory of mercury sources. Mercury pollution can also be removed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Bag-based filters are also used in factories that may contribute mercury to the environment. Flue-gas desulfurization, normally used to eliminate sulfur dioxide, can also be used in conjunction with APCDs to remove additional mercury before exhausts are released into the environment.[2] Even so, countries such as South Korea have only begun to use inventories of mercury sources, calling into question how fast anti-mercury measures will be put into factories. Minamata disease is a disease of the central nervous system, a poisoning caused by long-term consumption, in large amounts, of fish and shellfish from Minamata Bay. The causative agent is methylmercury. Methylmercury produced in the acetaldehyde acetic acid facility of Shin Nihon Chisso's Minamata factory was discharged in factory wastewater... Minamata disease patients last appeared in 1960, and the outbreak has ended. This is presumed to be because consumption of fish and shellfish from Minamata Bay was banned in the fall of 1957, and the fact that the factory had waste-treatment facilities in place from January 1960. A biological or biochemical accumulator Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionar

Bioakkumulation - Wikipedia

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification are two terms commonly used for metal toxicity. Bioaccumulation refers to how pollutants (metals) enter a food chain and relates to the accumulation of contaminants, in biological tissues by aquatic organisms, from sources such as water, food, and particles of suspended sediment ( Wang and Fisher, 1999 ) The Kumamoto University Research Group was formed on August 24, 1956. Researchers from the School of Medicine began visiting Minamata regularly and admitted patients to the university hospital for detailed examinations. A more complete picture of the symptoms exhibited by patients was gradually uncovered. The disease developed without any prior warning, with patients complaining of a loss of sensation and numbness in their hands and feet. They became unable to grasp small objects or fasten buttons. They could not run or walk without stumbling, their voices changed in pitch, and many patients complained of difficulties seeing, hearing, and swallowing. In general, these symptoms deteriorated and were followed by severe convulsions, coma, and eventually death. By October 1956, 40 patients had been discovered, 14 of whom had died: an alarming case fatality rate of 35%.[18] Local doctors and medical officials had noticed for a long time an abnormally high frequency of cerebral palsy and other infantile disorders in the Minamata area. In 1961, a number of medical professionals including Masazumi Harada (later to receive an honour from the United Nations for his body of work on Minamata disease) set about re-examining children diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The symptoms of the children closely mirrored those of adult Minamata disease patients, but many of their mothers did not exhibit symptoms. The fact that these children had been born after the initial outbreak and had never been fed contaminated fish also led their mothers to believe they were not victims. At the time the medical establishment believed the placenta would protect the foetus from toxins in the bloodstream, which is indeed the case with most chemicals. What was not known at the time was that exactly the opposite is the case with methylmercury: the placenta removes it from the mother's bloodstream and concentrates the chemical in the foetus. Fish that consume their prey in a certain manner may contain much higher concentrations of mercury than other species. Grass carp off the coast of China hold far less internal mercury than do bighead carp. The reason for this is that bighead carp are filter feeders, while grass carp are not. Thus, bighead carp gather more mercury by eating large amounts of small plankton, as well as sucking up sediments that collect a sizable amount of methyl mercury.[3] To investigate the epidemic, the city government and various medical practitioners formed the Strange Disease Countermeasures Committee (奇病対策委員会, Kibyō Taisaku Iinkai) at the end of May 1956. Owing to the localised nature of the disease, it was suspected to be contagious and as a precaution patients were isolated and their homes disinfected. Although contagion was later disproved, this initial response contributed to the stigmatisation and discrimination experienced by Minamata victims from the local community. During its investigations, the committee uncovered surprising anecdotal evidence of the strange behaviour of cats and other wildlife in the areas surrounding patients' homes. From around 1950 onward, cats had been seen to have convulsions, go mad, and die. Locals called it the "cat dancing disease" (猫踊り病, neko odori byō), owing to their erratic movement.[2] Crows had fallen from the sky, seaweed no longer grew on the sea bed, and fish floated dead on the surface of the sea. As the extent of the outbreak was understood, the committee invited researchers from Kumamoto University to help in the research effort.[17]

Talk:Bioaccumulation - Wikipedia

  1. ent Japanese documentary filmmaker Noriaki Tsuchimoto made a series of films, starting with Minamata: The Victims and Their World (1971) and including The Shiranui Sea (1975), documenting the incident and siding with the victims in their struggle against Chisso and the government.
  2. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.: You are free: to share - to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix - to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in.
  3. Fish and shellfish concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury, a highly toxic organomercury compound. Fish products have been shown to contain varying amounts of heavy metals, particularly mercury and fat-soluble pollutants from water pollution. Species of fish that are long-lived and high on the food chain, such as marlin, tuna, shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish (Gulf of Mexico) contain higher concentrations of mercury than others.[1]
  4. Bioaccumulation is a see also of bioconcentration. In context|biology|lang=en terms the difference between bioaccumulation and bioconcentration is that bioaccumulation is (biology) the process by which substances accumulate in the tissues of living organisms; used especially of toxic substances that accumulate via a food chain while bioconcentration is (biology) any process that leads to a a.
  5. ated fish and shellfish being the prime suspects.
  6. Similar terms are bioconcentration, biological concentration, or biological magnification.[1]
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Mercury in fish - Wikipedia

  1. 016 - Agriculture In this video Paul Andersen describes the pros and cons of industrial agriculture including: monocropping, irrigation, and the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and GMOs. Do you.
  2. ants they found in the food of over 20 European countries. They established that fish meat and fish products were primarily responsible for methylmercury in the diet of all age classes. Particularly implicated were swordfish, tuna, cod, pike, whiting and hake. The EFSA recommend a tolerable weekly intake for methylmercury of 1.3 μg/kg body weight.[58]
  3. es. It was halted by 1974, and demand fell from 2,500 tons per year in 1964, its peak, to 10 tons per year in recent years.[8] Since these initial strides, Japan has introduced a list of regulations governing the mercury content of a variety of materials.

Bioakkumulation - Wikipedia, den frie encyklopæd

Unlike the patients in Minamata, the victims of Showa Denko's pollution lived a considerable distance from the factory and had no particular link to the company. As a result, the local community was much more supportive of patients' groups and a lawsuit was filed against the company in March 1968, only three years after discovery. (of a substance) That tends to accumulate in an organism when the organism's ability to remove it is insufficient. 2007, Elizabeth Grossman, High Tech Trash: Digital Devices, Hidden Toxics, and Human Health, Island Press (→ISBN), page 284: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) received a flurry of attention around 2000, when studies of its effects on.

The people directly impacted by the pollution of Minamata Bay were not originally allowed to participate in actions that would affect their future. Disease victims, fishing families, and company employees were excluded from the debate. Progress occurred when Minamata victims were finally allowed to come to a meeting to discuss the issue. As a result, postwar Japan took a small step toward democracy. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency measures the amount of mercury concentrated in human blood that does not pose fatal health outcomes. The agency is in charge of enforcing regulations and policies that cover a range of environmental topics.[33] Analysis of blood mercury concentrations in childbearing women has proved that exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) occurs primarily through the consumption of fish.[34] The U.S. FDA highly recommends against pregnant woman and young children consuming raw fish. Pregnant women and young children often lack strong immune systems and are more at risk for foodborne illnesses.[35] La bioaccumulation désigne la capacité de certains organismes (végétaux, animaux, fongiques, microbiens) à absorber et concentrer dans tout ou une partie de leur organisme (partie vivante ou inerte telle que l'écorce ou le bois de l'arbre, la coquille de la moule, la corne, etc.) certaines substances chimiques, éventuellement rares dans l'environnement (oligoéléments utiles ou. Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata city in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan, in 1956. It was caused by the release of methylmercury in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso Corporation's chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. It has also been suggested that some of the mercury sulfate in the wastewater was also metabolized to methylmercury by bacteria in the sediment.[1] This highly toxic chemical bioaccumulated and biomagnified in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea, which, when eaten by the local population, resulted in mercury poisoning. While cat, dog, pig, and human deaths continued for 36 years, the government and company did little to prevent the epidemic. The animal effects were severe enough in cats that they came to be named as having "dancing cat fever" (猫踊り病).[2] Research suggests that selenium content in fish is protective against the toxic effects of methylmercury content.[57] Fish with higher ratios of selenium to methylmercury (Se:Hg) are better to eat since the selenium binds to the methylmercury allowing it to pass through the body un-absorbed.

The years between the first set of "sympathy money" agreements in 1959 and the start of the first legal action to be taken against Chisso in 1969 are often called the "ten years of silence". In fact, much activity on the part of the patients and fishermen took place during this period, but nothing had a significant impact on the actions of the company or the coverage of Minamata in the national media.

Wastewater treatmentedit

Finally on 26 September 1968 – 12 years after the discovery of the disease (and four months after Chisso had stopped production of acetaldehyde using its mercury catalyst) – the government issued an official conclusion as to the cause of Minamata disease: On April 21, 1956, a five-year-old girl was examined at the Chisso Corporation's factory hospital in Minamata, Kumamoto, a town on the west coast of the southern island of Kyūshū. The physicians were puzzled by her symptoms: difficulty walking, difficulty speaking, and convulsions. Two days later, her younger sister also began to exhibit the same symptoms and she, too, was hospitalised. The girls' mother informed doctors that her neighbour's daughter was also experiencing similar problems. After a house-to-house investigation, eight further patients were discovered and hospitalised. On May 1, the hospital director reported to the local public health office the discovery of an "epidemic of an unknown disease of the central nervous system", marking the official discovery of Minamata disease.[16] Bioaccumulation is the gradual accumulation of a certain chemical into the living tissue of an organism from its environment. This accumulation may result from direct absorption from the environment or from ingestion of food particles Bioaccumulation increases the dose effect and can make any substance toxic but may also be a useful biological process for the organism. Watersoluble organometals will normally be excreted and probably not bioaccumulate. Biologically useful bioaccumulatio

Bioaccumulation - Simple English Wikipedia, the free

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Category:Bioaccumulation - Wikimedia Common

  1. e the classification of POPs, create measures to eli
  2. Die relative Höhe der Stoffkonzentration in einem Organismus gegenüber etwa dem umgebenden Boden, dem umgebenden Wasser oder der aufgenommenen Nahrung wird als Bioakkumulationsfaktor bezeichnet. Dieser stellt eine dimensionslose Größe dar, die das Verhältnis der Konzentrationen in den zwei Vergleichs-Kompartimenten wiedergibt.
  3. As nouns the difference between bioaccumulation and biosorption is that bioaccumulation is (biology) the process by which substances accumulate in the tissues of living organisms; used especially of toxic substances that accumulate via a food chain while biosorption is bioabsorption
  4. Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs) are a class of compounds that have high resistance to degradation from abiotic and biotic factors, high mobility in the environment and high toxicity. Because of these factors PBTs have been observed to have a high order of bioaccumulation and biomagnification, very long retention times in various media, and widespread distribution across the globe. Majority of PBTs in the environment are either created through industry or are unintentional byproducts.[1]
  5. en) und chemischen Elementen (etwa Mineralstoffen) vor. Ein Beispiel hierfür ist die Bioakkumulation von Vita

Video: bioaccumulation - Wiktionar

Bioackumulation - Wikipedia

  1. ate sau consumate prin catabolism și excreție.. Vezi și. Poluant organic persisten
  2. While various studies have shown high concentrations of mercury accumulated in fish, medical cases often go unreported and pose a difficulty in correlating mercury in fish with human poisoning. Environmental issues cover a broad range of areas, but medical cases that are associated with pollutants released into the environment by factories or construction areas cause public health issues that affect not only the environment but also human well-being. Substances poisonous to the human body in a particular amount or dose may not cause any symptoms over time. While there are limits to how much of anything the body can have, mercury is a particular poison that produces immediate physical symptoms when the body has been accumulating it over a period of time.[clarification needed]
  3. Similar to POPs classification, the PBT classification of chemicals was developed in 1997 by the Great Lakes Binational Toxic Strategy (GLBNS). Signed by both the U.S and Canada, the GLBNS classified PBTs in one of two categories, level I and level II.[3] Level I PBTs are top priority which currently, as of 2005, contained 12 compounds or classes of compounds.[3]
  4. istry building for two days while they did so. The final agreement was signed on 27 May. Payments for deaths ranged from ¥1.7 million to ¥4 million ($4,700 to $11,100), one-time payments from ¥1 million to ¥4.2 million ($2,760 to $11,660) and annual payments between ¥170,000 and ¥380,000 ($470 to $1,100) for surviving patients. On the day of the signing, the Minamata Citizens' Council held a protest outside the Minamata factory gates. One of the Chisso trade unions held an eight-hour strike in protest at the poor treatment of the arbitration group by their own company.[32]
  5. and 7 days mercury has an atmospheric residence time of at least 1 year.[26] This atmospheric retention time along with mercury’s resistance to degradation factors such as electromagnetic radiation and oxidation, which are two of the main factors leading to degradation of many PBTs in the atmosphere, allows mercury from any source to be transported extensively. This characteristic of mercury transportation globally along with its high toxicity is the reasoning behind its incorporation into the BNS list of PBTs.[1]
  6. The Chisso Corporation first opened a chemical factory in Minamata in 1908. Initially producing fertilisers, the factory followed the nationwide expansion of Japan's chemical industry, branching out into production of acetylene, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, vinyl chloride, and octanol, among others. The Minamata factory became the most advanced in all of Japan, both before and after World War II.[7] The waste products resulting from the manufacture of these chemicals were released into Minamata Bay through the factory wastewater. These pollutants had an environmental impact. Fisheries were damaged in terms of reduced catches, and in response Chisso reached two separate compensation agreements with the fishery cooperative in 1926 and 1943.[8]

Bioackumulation eller bioackumulering är anrikning och ackumulering av miljögifter hos en biologisk organism, vanligtvis ett djur.För att en substans ska kunna ge upphov till bioackumulation måste det vara fettlösligt eller persistent, ofta båda.Dessa substanser får organismerna vanligtvis i sig genom födan och de lagras i kroppen ju äldre de blir Sodium fluoride, the type of fluoride used in tap water across America today, is an industrial byproduct that doubles as insecticide, which was first used by the Nazis to keep the Jews weak and unable to rebel in the concentration camps of World War II.Yet today's food and water contain some of the exact same ingredients, purposely, that do chronic health damage to humans, in the short and.

Bioaccumulation vs Bioconcentration - What's the

  1. Bioakkumulation als physiologischer Vorgang. Die Bioakkumulation kann sich auf eine chemische Verbindung beziehen (etwa DDT), auf ein chemisches Element (etwa Blei), auf ein Isotop (etwa 90 Sr, das radioaktive Strontium-90) oder auf besonders kleine Teilchen (sog. Nanopartikel).Bioakkumulationen treten vorwiegend bei Substanzen auf, die eine lange biologische Halbwertszeit besitzen, die also.
  2. (wikipedia bioaccumulation) Noun (biology) The process by which substances accumulate in the tissues of living organisms; used especially of toxic substances that accumulate via a food chai
  3. Η σελίδα αυτή τροποποιήθηκε τελευταία φορά στις 2 Μαΐου 2017, στις 17:57. Όλα τα κείμενα είναι διαθέσιμα υπό την Άδεια Creative Commons Αναφορά Δημιουργού-Παρόμοια Διανομή 3.0· μπορεί να ισχύουν πρόσθετοι όροι
  4. Through the evolution of public sentiments, the victims and environmental protesters were able to acquire standing and proceed more effectively in their cause. The involvement of the press also aided the process of democratization because it caused more people to become aware of the facts of Minamata disease and the pollution that caused it.
  5. ing, wastes from consumer products, dental amalgam, the chlor-alkali industry, production of vinyl chloride, and the

The absorption and concentration of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and certain pesticides in plants and animals. Toxicity can be expressed in several ways: lead that is ingested by calves can bioaccumulate in their bones, interfering with calcium absorption and bone development; stored chemicals may be released to the blood stream at a later time, for example, during gestation or weight loss. 生物濃縮(せいぶつのうしゅく)は、ある種の化学物質が生態系での食物連鎖を経て生物体内に濃縮されてゆく現象をいう。 生体濃縮(せいたいのうしゅく) ともいう。. 疎水性が高く、代謝を受けにくい化学物質は、尿などとして体外に排出される割合が低いため、生物体内の脂質中などに. PBTs are a unique classification of chemicals that have and will continue to impact human health and the environment worldwide. The three main attributes of a PBT (persistence, bioaccumulative and toxic) each have a huge role in the risk posed by these compounds.[1] bioaccumulation: bald eagles, osprey, seals, and northern harriers. 1 - seals 2 - bald eagles (not only eat fish but scavenge on dead mammals and birds) 3 - osprey 4 - northern harriers 2A-3. Title: Lesson 2: Food Webs, Bioaccumulation, and Visualizing Data Author: jobrie

Continued pollutionedit

Hair samples were taken from the victims of the disease and also from the Minamata population in general. In patients, the maximum mercury level recorded was 705 parts per million (ppm), indicating very heavy exposure and in nonsymptomatic Minamata residents, the level was 191 ppm. This compared to an average level of 4 ppm for people living outside the Minamata area.[20] Most cases that arise are due to work exposure or medicinal poisoning. Environmental justice advocates can relate these mercury cases to the unregulated amount of mercury that enters the environment. Workers can be exposed to mercury through the manufacture of fluorescent tubes, chloralkali, or acetaldehyde among other products. Anthropogenic sources and places where mercury is released or used as a solid or vapor puts these has caused fatigue, dizziness, hyperhidrosis, chest congestion, and loss of motor skills. When taken to the hospital, the neurotoxicity levels had already exceeded the maximum amounts.[38] Over-the-counter medicines have been shown to have traces of mercurous chloride. Medical research reported that the children who received doses of these medicines experienced physical symptoms such as "drooling, irregular arm movements, and impaired gait".[39] Exposures to this result in severe physical impairments unregulated chemicals that are put in products. The intake of laxatives that contained about 120 mg of mercurous chloride has also been cases of mercury's toxicity.[40]

The Effects of Bioaccumulation on the Ecosystem Sciencin

The song "The Disease of the Dancing Cats" by the band Bush on "The Science of Things" album is in reference to the disaster. A memorial service was held at the Minamata Disease Municipal Museum on 1 May 2006 to mark 50 years since the official discovery of the disease. Despite bad weather, the service was attended by over 600 people, including Chisso chairman Shunkichi Goto and Environment Minister Yuriko Koike.[50]

Accumulation - Wikipedia

Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion. Thus, the longer the biological half-life of a toxic substance, the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels of the. Around this time, two other pollution-related diseases were also grabbing headlines in Japan. Victims of Yokkaichi asthma and Itai-itai disease were forming citizens' groups and filed lawsuits against the polluting companies in September 1967 and March 1968, respectively. As a group, these diseases came to be known as the four big pollution diseases of Japan.[30] Bioaccumulation is the gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides or other chemicals, in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion.Thus, the longer the biological half-life of a toxic substance, the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels.

Bioconcentration=Bioaccumulation? Well not necessarily. Consider for example the salt concentration in a lake-living organism. Its salt concentration might very well be higher than that of the surrounding, but it doesn't accumulate. Anwendungen. K ow-Werte werden unter anderem zur Beurteilung des Umweltverhaltens von langlebigen organischen Schadstoffen herangezogen. Chemikalien mit hohen Koeffizienten beispielsweise neigen eher dazu, sich im Fettgewebe von Organismen anzureichern (Bioakkumulation).Darüber hinaus spielt der Parameter eine wichtige Rolle in der Arzneimittelforschung (Rule of Five) und in der Toxikologie Toshiko Akiyoshi, touched by the plight of the fishing village, wrote a jazz suite, "Minamata", that was to be the central piece of the Toshiko Akiyoshi-Lew Tabackin Big Band's 1976 album on RCA, Insights. The piece was constructed in three parts, to musically reflect the tragedy – "Peaceful Village", "Prosperity & Consequence", and "Epilogue". Akiyoshi used Japanese vocalists to sing the Japanese lyrics of a tone poem that were part of the composition. The album won many awards in jazz circles, including Downbeat's best album award, largely on the strength of this piece, which brought some further attention to the tragedy.[42] Insights (Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band) Different sources (e.g. encyclopedias) convey a different message here and it might even be the case that the definitions of Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation varies with context. Some help from an expert is probably needed to sort this out.

Video: Bioaccumulation factor definition of bioaccumulation

biomagnification - Wiktionar

The litigation group and their lawyers were helped substantially by an informal national network of citizens' groups that had sprung up around the country in 1969. The Associations to Indict [Those Responsible for] Minamata Disease (水俣病を告発する会, Minamata-byō o Kokuhatsu Suru Kai) were instrumental in raising awareness and funds for the lawsuit. The Kumamoto branch, in particular, was especially helpful to the case. In September 1969, they set up a Trial Research Group, which included law professors, medical researchers (including Masazumi Harada), sociologists and even the housewife and poet Michiko Ishimure to provide useful material to the lawyers to improve their legal arguments. In fact, their report, Corporate Responsibility for Minamata Disease: Chisso's Illegal Acts,[34] published in August 1970, formed the basis of the ultimately successful lawsuit.[32] DDT can't be dissolved in water; it is, however, easily dissolved in organic solvents, fats, or oils. As a result of its tendency to dissolve in fats, DDT can build up in the fatty tissues of animals that are exposed to it. This accumulated build-up is known as bioaccumulation, and DDT is described by the EPA as a persistent, bio-accumulative. US government scientists tested fish in 291 streams around the country for mercury contamination. They found mercury in every fish tested, according to the study by the U.S. Department of the Interior. They found mercury even in fish of isolated rural waterways. Twenty-five percent of the fish tested had mercury levels above the safety levels determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for people who eat the fish regularly.[23]

Mercury in the United States frequently comes from power plants, which release about 50% of the nation's mercury emissions.[26] In other countries, such as Ghana, gold mining requires mercury compounds, leading to workers receiving significant quantities of mercury while performing their jobs. Such mercury from gold mines is specifically known to contribute to biomagnification in aquatic food chains.[27] PBT (persistente, bioakkumulierende und toxische Fremdstoffe) werden als organische, persistente, bioakkumulierende Substanzen mit toxischen Eigenschaften definiert, die nachteilige Effekte auf den Menschen und die Umwelt ausprägen.[2] PBT-Angaben sind in Sicherheitsdatenblättern enthalten.

Minamata disease broke out again in 1965, this time along the banks of the Agano River in Niigata Prefecture. The polluting factory (owned by Showa Denko) employed a chemical process using a mercury catalyst very similar to that used by Chisso in Minamata. As in Minamata, from the autumn of 1964 to the spring of 1965, cats living along the banks of the Agano River had been seen to go mad and die. Before long, patients appeared with identical symptoms to patients living on the Shiranui Sea, and the outbreak was made public on 12 June 1965. Researchers from the Kumamoto University Research Group and Hajime Hosokawa (who had retired from Chisso in 1962) used their experience from Minamata and applied it to the Niigata outbreak. In September 1966, a report was issued proving Showa Denko's pollution to be the cause of this second Minamata disease. The Chisso Minamata factory first started acetaldehyde production in 1932, producing 210 tons that year. By 1951, production had jumped to 6,000 tons per year and reached a peak of 45,245 tons in 1960.[11] Throughout, the Chisso factory's output amounted to between a quarter and a third of Japan's total acetaldehyde production. The chemical reaction used to produce the acetaldehyde used mercury sulfate as a catalyst. Starting in August 1951, the co-catalyst was changed from manganese dioxide to ferric sulfide.[12] A side reaction of this catalytic cycle led to the production of a small amount (about 5% of the outflow[13]) of an organic mercury compound, namely methylmercury.[14] This highly toxic compound was released into Minamata Bay from the change of the co-catalyst in 1951 until 1968, when this production method was discontinued.[15] Science and engineering. Accumulate (higher-order function), a family of functions to analyze a recursive data structure in computer science Bioaccumulation, of substances, such as pesticides or other chemicals in an organism; Glacier ice accumulation, an element in the glacier mass balance formula; Metabolic trapping, a localization mechanism of the synthesized radiocompounds in human bod The danger level from consuming fish depends on species and size. Size is the best predictor of increased levels of accumulated mercury. Sharks, such as the mako shark, have very high levels of mercury. A study on New Jersey coastal fish indicated that one third of the sampled fish had levels of mercury above 0.5 parts per million, a level that could pose a human health concern for consumers who regularly eat this fish.[17] Another study of marketplace fish caught in waters surrounding Southern Italy showed that, undoubtedly, greater fish weight leads to additional mercury found in fish body tissues. Moreover, the concentration, measured in milligrams of mercury per kilogram of fish, steadily increases with the size of the fish. Anglerfish off the coast of Italy were found with concentrations as high as 2.2 milligrams of mercury per kilogram, higher than the recommended limit of 1 milligram of mercury per kilogram. Annually, Italy catches approximately a third of its fish from the Adriatic Sea, where these anglerfish were found.[18]

The GLBNS is administered by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Environment Canada.[3] Following the GLBNS, the Multimedia Strategy for Priority Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Pollutants (PBT Strategy) was drafted by the USEPA.[3] The PBT Strategy led to the implementation of PBT criteria in several regulational policies. Two main policies that were changed by the PBT strategy were the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) which required more rigid chemical reporting and the New Chemical Program (NCP) under the Toxics Substances Control Act (TSCA) which required screening for PBTs and PBT properties.[3] Bioaccumulation is the building up of toxins in a food chain. Since toxins like, for instance, DDT, are not soluble in water and are instead stored in the fatty tissues, their levels raise each. Die Bioakkumulation kann sich auf eine chemische Verbindung beziehen (etwa DDT), auf ein chemisches Element (etwa Blei), auf ein Isotop (etwa 90Sr, das radioaktive Strontium-90) oder auf besonders kleine Teilchen (sog. Nanopartikel). Bioakkumulationen treten vorwiegend bei Substanzen auf, die eine lange biologische Halbwertszeit besitzen, die also weder rasch biochemisch ab- oder umgebaut noch rasch ausgeschieden werden. Geht die Konzentration im Außenmedium (Wasser, Boden, Nahrung) wieder zurück, vermindert sich die Bioakkumulationshöhe im Organismus vielfach allmählich wieder, wobei die Verminderung aber zeitverzögert und häufig auch nur unvollständig ist.

Bioaccumulation definition, biological accumulation. See more. The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology has noted that fish feed used in aquaculture often contains heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and arsenic, and has dispatched these concerns to organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Bioaccumulation often occurs in two ways, simultaneously: by eating contaminated food, and by absorption directly from water. This second case is specifically referred to as bioconcentration. So, what have we learned? Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation happen within an organism, but biomagnification occurs across levels of the food chain

Bioaccumulation Synthetic and organic chemicals build up in the environment when decomposers cannot break them down through the biodegradation process. Bioaccumulation is the gradual build-up of these chemicals in living organisms (Figure 2.53). A chemical will accumulate if it is taken up and stored faster than it is broken down and excreted The trial heard from patients and their families, but the most important testimony came from Chisso executives and employees. The most dramatic testimony came from Hajime Hosokawa, who spoke on 4 July 1970 from his hospital bed where he was dying of cancer. He explained his experiments with cats, including the infamous "cat 400", which developed Minamata disease after being fed factory wastewater. He also spoke of his opposition to the 1958 change in wastewater output route from Hyakken Harbour to Minamata River. His testimony was backed up by a colleague who also told how company officials had ordered them to halt their cat experiments in the autumn of 1959. Hajime Hosokawa died three months after giving his testimony. Former factory manager Eiichi Nishida admitted that the company put profits ahead of safety, resulting in dangerous working conditions and a lack of care with mercury. Former Chisso President Kiichi Yoshioka admitted that the company promoted a theory of dumped World War II explosives, though it knew it to be unfounded. Media in category Bioaccumulation The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. Mercury (Hg) Biomagnification Graphic (ba40f463-9f49-4a28-bcd9-a1e65a0d1dee).jpg 2,332 × 1,545; 644 K

Slowly but surely, the mood in Minamata and Japan as a whole was shifting. Minamata patients found the public gradually becoming more receptive and sympathetic as the decade wore on. This culminated in 1968 with the establishment in Minamata of the Citizens' Council for Minamata Disease Countermeasures, which was to become the chief citizens' support group to the Minamata patients. A founding member of the citizens' council was Michiko Ishimure, a local housewife and poet who later that year published Pure Land, Poisoned Sea: Our Minamata disease (苦海浄土―わが水俣病, Kugai Jōdo: Waga Minamatabyō) a book of poetic essays that received national acclaim. Bioamplification synonyms, Bioamplification pronunciation, Bioamplification translation, English dictionary definition of Bioamplification. n. The increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chai Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Bioaccumulation . Search the Kids Internet . Encyclopedia > Bioaccumulation Article Content Bioaccumulation. To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. However, it is commonly taken to measure the uptake over time of toxic substances that can stay in a biological system Akkumulation (von lateinisch accumulare anhäufen, ansammeln) steht für: . Accumulatio, Worthäufung, eine Stilfigur ähnlicher Begriffe in der Rhetorik; Akkumulation (Börse), auch Aufstockung, eine Form des Depotmanagements Akkumulation (Geowissenschaften), Mechanismen der Materialansammlung in den Geowissenschaften Akkumulation (Kunst), eine Gestaltungsform des Arrangement

The toxicity of this class of compounds is high with very low concentrations of a PBT required to enact an effect on an organism compared to most other contaminants. This high toxicity along with the persistence allows for the PBT to have detrimental effects in remote areas around the globe where there is not a local source of PBTs. The bioaccumulation and magnification along with the high toxicity and persistence has the ability to destroy and/or irreparably damage trophic systems, especially the higher trophic levels, globally. It is this reason that PBTs have become an area of focus in global politics.[3] Most congenital patients are now in their forties and fifties and their health is deteriorating. Their parents, who are often their only source of care, are into their seventies or eighties or already deceased. Often, these patients find themselves tied to their own homes and the care of their family, effectively isolated from the local community. Some welfare facilities for patients do exist. One notable example is Hot House (ほっとはうす, Hotto Hausu), a vocational training centre for congenital patients as well as other disabled people in the Minamata area. Hot House members are also involved in raising awareness of Minamata disease, often attending conferences and seminars as well as making regular visits to elementary schools throughout Kumamoto Prefecture.[52] Plutonij je hemijski element sa simbolom Pu i atomskim brojem 94. U periodnom sistemu on se nalazi u grupi aktinoida (7. perioda, f-blok) i ubraja se u tranuranijske elemente.Plutonij je vrlo otrovni, radioaktivni teški metal. Dobio je ime po patuljastoj planeti Plutonu.Prema svom rednom broju, on je najteži element koji se nalazi u prirodi. Međutim, u prirodi se nalazi samo u tragovima. The rapid expansion of the Minamata factory spurred on the local economy, and as Chisso prospered so did Minamata. This fact, combined with the lack of other industry, meant that Chisso had great influence in Minamata. At one point, over half of the tax revenue of Minamata City authority came from Chisso and its employees, and the company and its subsidiaries were responsible for creating a quarter of all jobs in Minamata.[9] Minamata was even dubbed Chisso's "castle town", in reference to the capital cities of feudal lords who ruled Japan during the Edo period.[10]

There are three types of mercury emission: anthropogenic, re-emission, and natural, including volcanoes and geothermal vents. Anthropogenic sources are responsible for 30% of all emissions, while natural sources are responsible for 10%, and re-emission accounts for the other 60%. While re-emission accounts for the largest proportion of emissions, it is likely that the mercury emitted from these sources originally came from anthropogenic sources.[24] The trial lasted almost four years. The litigation group lawyers sought to prove Chisso's corporate negligence. Three main legal points had to be overcome to win the case. First, the lawyers had to show that methylmercury caused Minamata disease and that the company's factory was the source of pollution. The extensive research by Kumamoto University and the government conclusion meant that this point was proved quite easily. Second, could and should the company have anticipated the effect of its wastewater and should it have taken steps to prevent the tragedy (i.e., was the company negligent in its duty of care)? Third, was the "sympathy money" agreement of 1959, which forbade the patients from claiming any further compensation, a legally binding contract? Bioaccumulation and biomagnification are two different processes that often occur in tandem with one another.Bioaccumulation is the process by which toxins enter the food web by building up in individual organisms, while biomagnification is the process by which toxins are passed from one trophic level to the next (and thereby increase in concentration) within a food web

Bioakumulasi adalah penimbunan substansi di dalam tubuh suatu organisme. Bioakumulasi terjadi ketika suatu substansi diserap oleh tubuh organisme dengan laju yang lebih cepat daripada pengeluaran substansi tersebut lewat proses katabolisme dan ekskresi.Semakin panjang waktu paruh biologis suatu substansi, maka semakin besar risiko keracunan yang dihadapi, bahkan jika konsentrasi racun tersebut. bioaccumulation (bī′ō-ə-kyo͞om′yə-lā′shən) n. The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism: the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. bi′o·ac·cu′mu·la′tive adj. bioaccumulation The accumulation of chemicals or nutrients in a living organism against an inorganic background (e.g. Biokertyvyys on aineen kyky kertyä eliöön. Orgaanisten aineiden taipumusta biokertyvyyteen arvioidaan tavallisesti oktanoli/vesi-jakautumiskertoimen avulla, joka ilmaistaan yleensä log K ow-arvona.CLP-luokituksen mukaan aineella on taipumus biokertyvyyteen, jos log K ow ≥ 4. Biokertyvyystekijä (BCF) voidaan määrittää kokeellisesti kalalle ja se mittaa ominaisuutta paremmin Biomagnifikation ist ein Teilaspekt der Bioakkumulation.Sie beschreibt die Anreicherung von Schadstoffen aus der Umwelt in Lebewesen über die Nahrung. Die Anreicherung von Schadstoffen über die Körperoberflächen von Organismen (Lunge, Kieme, Haut) ist der zweite Teilaspekt der Bioakkumulation und wird als Biokonzentration bezeichnet; dieser Aufnahmepfad ist insbesondere für viele.

Picture the food web-an interconnected tangle of species, all relying on each other for energy and nutrients. Though most of what gets passed along from the tiniest microbes to humans enables us to live, a small fraction of it can be toxic. Why Heavy Metals Accumulate in Your Food and Your Body Heavy metals are natura The prefectural governments did not publish the results and did nothing in response to these surveys. The participants who had donated hair samples were not informed of their result, even when they requested it. A follow-up study ten years later discovered that many had died from "unknown causes".[27] Bioaccumulation Last updated April 02, 2020. Bioaccumulation is the gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides or other chemicals, in an organism. [1] Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion.Thus, the longer the biological half-life of a toxic substance, the greater the risk of.

Effects of PBTs may include increase in disease, lesions in benthic feeders, spawning loss, change in age-structured populations of fish, and tissue contamination in fish and shellfish.[11][12] Humans and other organisms, which consume shellfish and/or fish contaminated with persistent bioaccumulative pollutants, have the potential to bioaccumulate these chemicals.[2] This may put these organisms at risk of mutagenic, teratogenic, and/or carcinogenic effects.[2] Correlations have been found between elevated exposure to PCB mixtures and alterations in liver enzymes, hepatomegaly, and dermatological effects such as rashes have been reported.[5] Polluting wastewater had damaged the fisheries around Minamata ever since the opening of the Chisso factory in 1908. The Minamata Fishing Cooperative had managed to win small payments of "sympathy money" (見舞い金, mimaikin) from the company in 1926 and again in 1943, but after the outbreak of Minamata disease, the fishing situation was becoming critical. Fishing catches had declined by 91% between 1953 and 1957. The Kumamoto prefectural government issued a partial ban on the sale of fish caught in the heavily polluted Minamata Bay, but not an all-out ban, which would have legally obliged it to compensate the fishermen. The fishing cooperative protested against Chisso and angrily forced their way into the factory on 6 August and 12 August, demanding compensation. A committee was set up by Minamata Mayor Todomu Nakamura to mediate between the two sides, but this committee was stacked heavily in the company's favour. On 29 August, the fishing cooperative agreed to the mediation committee's proposal, stating: "In order to end the anxiety of the citizens, we swallow our tears and accept". The company paid the cooperative ¥20 million (US$183,477) and set up a ¥15 million ($137,608) fund to promote the recovery of fishing.

Inorganic mercury (elemental mercury) is less bioavailable and less toxic than that of organic mercury but is still toxic nonetheless. It is released into the environment through both natural sources as well as human activity, and it has the capability to travel long distances through the atmosphere.[22] Around 2,700 to 6,000 tons of elemental mercury are released via natural activity such as volcanoes and erosion. Another 2,000 – 3,000 tons are released by human industrial activities such as coal combustion, metal smelting and cement production.[23] Due to its high volatility and atmospheric residence time of around 1 year, mercury has the ability to travel across continents before being deposited. Inorganic mercury has a wide spectrum of toxicological effects that include damage to the respiratory, nervous, immune and excretory systems in humans.[22] Inorganic mercury also possesses the ability to bioaccumulate individuals and biomagnify through trophic systems.[24] In February 1959, the mercury distribution in Minamata Bay was investigated. The results shocked the researchers involved. Large quantities of mercury were detected in fish, shellfish, and sludge from the bay. The highest concentrations centred around the Chisso factory wastewater canal in Hyakken Harbour and decreased going out to sea, clearly identifying the plant as the source of contamination. Pollution was so heavy at the mouth of the wastewater canal, a figure of 2 kg of mercury per ton of sediment was measured: a level that would be economically viable to mine. Indeed, Chisso did later set up a subsidiary to reclaim and sell the mercury recovered from the sludge.[20] Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. Thus, the longer the biological half-life of the substance the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels of the toxin are very low Minamata disease is a poisoning disease that affects mainly the central nervous system and is caused by the consumption of large quantities of fish and shellfish living in Minamata Bay and its surroundings, the major causative agent being some sort of organic mercury compound.[21] Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article Bioaccumulation or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice

The key difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification is that bioaccumulation refers to the build-up of a toxic chemical in the body of a living organism while biomagnification is the increase of the concentration of a toxic chemical when going along a food chain.. Food chains are important interrelations among the organisms in the ecosystems On November 4, the research group announced its initial findings: "Minamata disease is rather considered to be poisoning by a heavy metal, presumably it enters the human body mainly through fish and shellfish."[19]

The model was also used to probe the influence of partitioning and degradation properties, length of emissions, and model assumptions regarding lipid content and liver metabolism on concentration age trends of bioaccumulative and persistent contaminants bioaccumulation (countable and uncountable, plural bioaccumulations) The process by which substances accumulate in the tissues of living organisms; used especially of toxic substances that accumulate via a food chain. Translations Vielfach wird die Bioakkumulation konzeptionell unterteilt in die Biokonzentration, die die reine Aufnahme aus der Umgebung über Körperoberflächen darstellt (Aufnahme über die Kiemen ist für viele Wasserorganismen wichtig) und in die Biomagnifikation, die die Aufnahme über die Nahrung darstellt. Die unterschiedliche Bedeutung dieser beiden Eintrittspfade ist in der Praxis manchmal schwer festzustellen, da die Aufnahmewege häufig parallel verlaufen (etwa bei Wasserorganismen[1]) und die jeweilige Höhe der Bioakkumulation im Organismus im Gleichgewicht mit dem Abbau oder der Ausscheidung der Substanz aus dem Körper steht.

F.2 Bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation is the net uptake of a pesticide from the environment by all possible routes (e.g., respiration, diet, dermal) from any source (e.g., water, sediment, and other organisms) (Spacie et al. 1995).Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are calculated by considering pesticide tissue concentrations with respect to environmental pesticide concentrations Synonym of Bioaccumulation: English Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a - possibly toxic - substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion Use these sequencing cards as a different approach to learning about the process of bioaccumulation.Tags in this resource: polluted-river-1.pngPlankton-2.pngPlankton-Black-and-White-2.pngSmall-Fish-Feeding-On-Plankton.pngSmall-Fish-Feeding-On-Plankton-Black-and-White.pngLarge-Fish-Eating-Smaller-Fish.pngLarge-Fish-Eating-Smaller-Fish-Black-and-White.pngSeal-Hunting-Fish.pngSeal-Hunting-Fish.

The verdict handed down on 20 March 1973 represented a complete victory for the patients of the litigation group: As of March 2001, 2,265 victims had been officially recognised as having Minamata disease (1,784 of whom had died)[3] and over 10,000 had received financial compensation from Chisso.[4] By 2004, Chisso Corporation had paid $86 million in compensation, and in the same year was ordered to clean up its contamination.[5] On March 29, 2010, a settlement was reached to compensate as-yet uncertified victims.[6] Isoproturon mainly enters the environment during its application as an agricultural herbicide, but releases may also occur during manufacture, transportation and storage.Isoproturon has a low tendency to adsorb to soils and is therefore quite able to enter in water bodies despite its rather low water solubility (70,2 mg/l). Its half-life in water is 30 days, in soils 40 days

Bioaccumulation (note 4) Last Update: 2016-09-30 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: Reference: Wikipedia

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